Researches of Pueraria Mirifica

Logo All-04 Researches of Pueraria Mirifica

The Pueraria family with special interest in Pueraria Mirifica

Author: Anthony C. Dweck. FLS FRSC FRSH
Lab : N/A
Abstract:
The genus Pueraria is not abundant in the literature, although there seems to be some correlation between the different species that is encouraging to the phytochemist.
Published: N/A

Long-Term Treatment Effects of Pueraria Mirifica Phytoestrogens on Parathyroid Hormone and Calcium Levels in Aged Menopausal Cynomolgus Monkeys

Authors: Htaitip Trisomboon, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Juri Suzaki, Yuzuru Hamada, Gen Watanabe and Kazuyoshi Taya
1. Biological Science Ph.D. Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330
2.Primate Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3. Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506
4. Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and TEchnology, Tokyo 183-8509
5. Department of Basic Veterinary Science, The United Graduate School of Verinary Science, Gifu University, Gifu 501-11093, Japan
Abstract:

To determine the effect of Pueraria Mirifica (PM) on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium elvels on aged menopausal monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), subjects were treated with 10, 100, or 1,000 mg/day of PM. Blood samples were collected every 5 days for 30, 90 and 60 days during pre-treatment, treatment, and post-treatment periods, respectively. Sera were assayed for PTH, estradiol, and calcium levels. PM-1,000 had the strongest effect on the decrease in PTH (0.001<P≤0.05) and calcium levels (0.001<P≤0.03) during the treatment period. PTH levels remained low for the first 15 days of the post-treatment period (0.01≤P≤0.05). PM-10 induced a significant decrease in PTH level on day (P=0.02) during the treatment period and significant decrease in calcium level on day 75 (P<0.01). There were no changes in serum PTH and calcium levels throughout the study period in the PM-100 group. Estradiol levels decreased significantly during the treatment period in all treatment groups. The results suggest that long-term treatment with 1,000mg/day of PM decreases serum PTH and calcium levels in aged menopausal monkeys, indicating that PM ameliorates bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency.

Published: August 17, 2004
Key words: Pueraria Mirifica, Phytoestrogen, PTH, Calcium, Aged menopausal monkey

Effects of Pueraria mirifica on Teat and Reproductive Organs of Immature Female Pigs

Author: Phd. Yutana Samitrasiri
Abstract:Immature female pigs 1.5 month-old were fed with dried Pueraria mirifica tuber powder (PM), which possessed estrogen-like activity, everyday at the dosage of 25, 50 g/day for 8 consecutive weeks compared with the control group (6 piglets/group). It was found that PM could induce the teat and vaginal development within the first week after PM treatment. PM not only could increase the number of teats and their development but also induce the shedding of hair occur as well as regrowth, with the new hair longer and shinier; the flaking of epidermis especially in the head and body region, the basic pH of; vaginal mucus. After 8 weeks of treatment, the 3 immature pigs of each group were randomly sacrificed and it was found that the ovarian weight of PMtreated group was less that the control group significantly especially PM at the dosage of 25 g./ day but both dosage of PM could significantly induce the oviductal and uterine weights more than the control group. PM could significantly induce not only the layer of adipost tissue at abdominal wall but also the mammary gland development but PM had no effect on body weight gained of the immature pig. The effects of PM were depend on the dosage of PM also. After cessation of PM and follow for another 4 weeks, it was found that the teat length was still longer than the control whereas the teat di ameter was not differ from the control, although the vagina was bigger than the control but was smaller than during the PM treatment, vaginal mucus was disappear and vaginal pH was not differ from the control group. It was concluded that PM could induce the teat and vaginal development of the immature female pigs. PM could inhibit ovarian development but could induce oviductal, uterine and mamary gland development. PM could also pronounced its effect on hair and skin epidermal development whereas PM has no effect on the body weight gained of the immature female pigs. After cessation of PM; the teat length was still long but not fully developed, the vagina was still big but smaller than during PM treatment, the flaking of skin epidermis was disappear while the hair still long and shiny.

Published: N/A

Effects of Pueraria Mirifica on Vascular Function of Ovariectomized Rabbits

Authors: Suvara K Wattanapitayakul, PhD*, Linda Chularojmontri, MS**, Supatra Srichirat, PhD***
* Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University
** Inter-department of Pharmacology, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University
*** Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary, Chulalongkorn University
Abstract:

Estrogen stimulates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production and attenuates endothelial dysfunction in ischemia/repurfusion and menopause. Recent studies have shown that phytoestrogens from dietary sources improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular risks. The Thai medicinal plant Pueraria mirifica (PM) contains many potent phytoestrogens including miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol but no study on vascular function has been stablished. Ground powder of PM was orally given to ovariectomized White New Zealand rabbits (OVX + PM group) (n = 4) weighing 3.2-4.0 kg at the dose of 100 mg/kg for 90 days. Saline-treated ovariectomized rabbits were assigned as a control group (OVX group) (n = 5). At the end of treatment thoracic aorta was isolated for functional evaluation. Maximal relaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh) was significantly increased (24%) with 3.5-fold decrease in EC50 while no change in relaxant response to sodium nitroprusside was observed. Minimal and maximal responses to 17ß-estradiol (E2) were increased in the OVX + PM group and L-NAME (100 mM) attenuated Emax of E2. PM significantly decreased maximal contractile responses to norepinephrine (NE), but no change in EC50 was observed. In addition to vascular study, the authors found no significant alteration in serum cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, HDL, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation in OVX + PM rabbits. These data demonstrate that PM (100 mg/kg/d) improved endothelial function through NO-dependent pathway and increased response to E2 while sensitivity to NE was reduced. In addition, it had no impact on lipid profile, liver enzymes, and ALP activities. PM is a potential source of phytoestrogens for postmenopausal women to improve cardiovascular function or reduce cardiovascular risks.

Published: 2008
Keywords: Phytoestrogens, Pueraria mirifica, Hippocampal neuron, 17ß-estradiol, Synaptophysin, Synaptic density

Efficacy Comparison of Pueraria mirifica (PM) against Conjugated Equine Estrogen (CEE) with/without Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) in the Treatment of Climacteric Symptoms in Perimenopausal Women: Phase III Study

Authors: Verapol Chandeying MD*, Malinee Sangthawan MD**
* Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkhla University, Hat Yai, Songkla
** Hat Yai Regional Hospital, Hat Yai, Songkla
Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy comparison of Pueraria mirifica (PM), name in Thai is Kwao Kruea Khao, against conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with/without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in the treatment of perimenopuasal women with climacteric symptoms. Material and Method: Perimenopausal women attending the Menopausal clinic of Hat Yai Regional Hospital were voluntarily recruited. The vasomotor symptoms such as hot flushes and night sweats, as well as other unpleasant symptoms, urogenital and psychological symptoms, were also assessed. Patients were voluntarily enrolled and randomly received daily 50 mg raw material of PM, Group A, or daily 0.625 mg of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with/without 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), Group B, depend on nonhysterectomized/ hysterectomized condition.

Results: Seventy-one patients were enrolled. Eleven of those were excluded for failing to complete the initial work-up and follow-up. Sixty cases were evaluated, 30 cases in Group A and 30 cases in Group B. After medication, the mean of modified Greene climacteric scale (MGCS) in Group A/Group B had decreased from 29.0/32.26 to 17.86/18.1, 2.56/9.57 and 9.9/8.16 at 1-, 3-, and 6- month respectively. The clinical satisfaction using MGCS was not statistically significant between PM (Group A) and CEE with/without MPA (Group B) in the alleviation of climacteric symptoms (p-value > 0.05,). There were no statistically significant changes of three serum markers: estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) between both groups.

Conclusion: PM, containing phytoestrogens, has estrogenic effect as similar as CEE, and can alleviate the climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women. PM demonstrates great promise in the treatment of climacteric symptoms. However, optimal doses should be clinically assessed to meet appropriate individual responses.

Published: 2007
Keywords: Pueraria mirifica, Conjugated equine estrogen, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Vasomotor symptoms, Perimenopausal women, Phytoestrogen

Pueraria Mirifica initiative promotes the cellular mechanism of neuronal survival in neuron human neuroblastoma cells.

Authors: Sayan Sawatsri*1, Wanphen Yamkunthong1, Neil Sidell2.
1. Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand;
2. Emory University School of Medicine, GYN-OB Dept., Research Div., Atlanta, GA, USA.
Abstract:Pueraria Mirifica (PM) or White Kwao Krue (Thai Herb) has been used as a rejuvenator for long time in aging. It contains a variety of phytoestrogens that possess the highest estrogenic activity. In molecular research and epidemiological data show that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) can decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, whether the estrogenic effect of PM can prevent neurotrophic from neurotoxic agents e.g. glutamate, H2O2, and beta-amyloid 25-35 in AD model. What a mechanism of PM that prevents neuronal cell death is.

Objectives: The current study investigated the neurotrophic and neuroprotective action of the complex formulation of phytoestrogen from a standardized PM extract compare with 17b-estradiol in AD model in vitro.

Methods: Crude PM was extracted by ethanol and standardized by HPLC. Action of standarize PM was pretreated in human neuroblastoma cell line (LA-N5) in complete media of estrogen deprivation condition with neurotoxic agents; 0.2mM glutamate, 20µM H2O2, and 8 µg/ml beta-amyloid 25-35 by inhibit cell death. By using inverted microscope, morphologic and biochemical analysis were conducted in neuroblastoma cultures to determine the neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of standardize PM and 17b-estradiol. Using ICI anti-estrogenic activity and estrogen dependent breast cancer cell for demonstrate the inhibition of PM in estrogen receptor pathway in AD model.

Results: the results demonstrated that PM significantly decreased neuronal cell death in a time and dose dependent fashion. Results of neuroprotection studies demonstrated that PM and 10-8 M 17b-estradiol induced highly significant neuroprotection against beta-amyloid, hydrogen peroxide, glutamate-induced toxicity. Inhibi action of PM and 17b-estradiol by estrogen antagonist (ICI164,384) after induce with neurotoxic agents that show significantly increase cell death.

Conclusions: PM shows estrogenic activity similar 17b-estradiol and prevents neurotoxic agents for neuronal dead significantly by may pass estrogen pathway. For clinical application of PM possible to use for intervention in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disease in aging in the near future.

Published: 2008
Keywords: Phytoestrogens, Pueraria mirifica, Hippocampal neuron, 17β-estradiol, Synaptophysin, Synaptic density

Estradiol Replacement in Ovariectomized Rats Is Antihyperalgesic in the Formalin Test

Authors: Christy A. Mannino,* Samantha M. South,* Vanya Quinones-Jenab,† and Charles E. Inturrisi*
*Department of Pharmacology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York.
†Department of Psychology, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, New York.
Abstract:Abstract: A subcutaneous implant of 17β-estradiol or progesterone provides steady-state serum hormone levels from 7 to 24 days after implantation and allows the evaluation of the effects of the replacement with these hormones on phase 1 and phase 2 formalin-induced behaviors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Graded doses of 17β-estradiol (5% to 40%) reduce formalin-induced behavior by 35% to 49% during phase 2 but not during phase 1, as measured with an automated formalin apparatus. The maximal response is seen with 20% 17β-estradiol. The antihyperalgesic effect of 20% 17β-estradiol is significant at 8 days after implantation and persists at 21 days. In contrast, graded doses of progesterone have no effect on either phase of formalin. The estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen completely prevents the antihyperalgesic effect of the 20% 17β-estradiol implant. Formalin- induced behaviors during phase 2 are significantly less in proestrus females and OVX rats given 20% 17β-estradiol compared with OVX control rats. Also, the formalin-induced increase in serum corticosterone is attenuated in OVX control rats compared with proestrus females and OVX rats given 20% 17β-estradiol. These results indicate that estrogen replacement in OVX rats restores the maximal corticosterone response to tonic pain and, by an estrogen receptor–mediated process, inhibits tonic pain. Perspective: Hormone replacement (HR) therapy remains a widely used modality. We used a pharmacokinetically based rat HR model that results in continuous physiological levels of 17β-estradiol to demonstrate the analgesic (antihyperalgesic) effects of estrogen replacement in an inflammatory pain model (formalin). These results suggest a potentially important consequence of HR therapy.

Published : 17 August 2004
Key words : Pueraria Mirifica, Phytoestrogen, PTH, Calcium, Aged menopausal monkey

Pueraria Mirifica initiative promotes the cellular mechanism of neuronal survival in neuron human neuroblastoma cells.

Authors: Sayan Sawatsri*1, Wanphen Yamkunthong1, Neil Sidell2.
1. Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand;
2. Emory University School of Medicine, GYN-OB Dept., Research Div., Atlanta, GA, USA.
Abstract:Pueraria Mirifica (PM) or White Kwao Krue (Thai Herb) has been used as a rejuvenator for long time in aging. It contains a variety of phytoestrogens that possess the highest estrogenic activity. In molecular research and epidemiological data show that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) can decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, whether the estrogenic effect of PM can prevent neurotrophic from neurotoxic agents e.g. glutamate, H2O2, and beta-amyloid 25-35 in AD model. What a mechanism of PM that prevents neuronal cell death is.

Objectives: The current study investigated the neurotrophic and neuroprotective action of the complex formulation of phytoestrogen from a standardized PM extract compare with 17b-estradiol in AD model in vitro.

Methods: Crude PM was extracted by ethanol and standardized by HPLC. Action of standarize PM was pretreated in human neuroblastoma cell line (LA-N5) in complete media of estrogen deprivation condition with neurotoxic agents; 0.2mM glutamate, 20µM H2O2, and 8 µg/ml beta-amyloid 25-35 by inhibit cell death. By using inverted microscope, morphologic and biochemical analysis were conducted in neuroblastoma cultures to determine the neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of standardize PM and 17b-estradiol. Using ICI anti-estrogenic activity and estrogen dependent breast cancer cell for demonstrate the inhibition of PM in estrogen receptor pathway in AD model.

Results: the results demonstrated that PM significantly decreased neuronal cell death in a time and dose dependent fashion. Results of neuroprotection studies demonstrated that PM and 10-8 M 17b-estradiol induced highly significant neuroprotection against beta-amyloid, hydrogen peroxide, glutamate-induced toxicity. Inhibi action of PM and 17b-estradiol by estrogen antagonist (ICI164,384) after induce with neurotoxic agents that show significantly increase cell death.

Conclusions: PM shows estrogenic activity similar 17b-estradiol and prevents neurotoxic agents for neuronal dead significantly by may pass estrogen pathway. For clinical application of PM possible to use for intervention in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disease in aging in the near future.

Published: 2008
Keywords: Phytoestrogens, Pueraria mirifica, Hippocampal neuron, 17ß-estradiol, Synaptophysin, Synaptic density

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