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A case of huge enlargement of cystosarcoma phylloides of breast in pregnancy

Author: J.B. Sharma*, L. Wadhwa, M. Malhotra, R. Arora, S. Singh
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Pathology, Maulana Azad Medical College, Associated Lok Nayak, New Delhi 110016,India

A case of unilateral phylloides tumor of breast with sudden enlargement during pregnancy has been presented with successful pregnancy outcome followed by complete surgical excision (simple mastectomy) in the puerperium.

Published: 3 December 2003
Keywords: Cystosarcoma phylloides; Breast tumor; Pregnancy; Mastectomy

Influence of estradiol on mammary tumor collagen solubility in DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors

Authors: L. Rajkumar a,b,*, K. Balasubramanian b, J. Arunakaran b, P. Govindarajulu b, N. Srinivasan b
a. Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, 4800 Alberta Avenue, El Paso, TX 79905, USA
b. Department of Endocrinology, Dr ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras,Taramani, Madras 600 113, India

Estradiol plays a vital role in the growth and development of mammary glands. It is a potent stimulator of metabolic processes in normal and carcinoma breast. A critical factor in determining mammary glandular morphology is the stroma. Collagen is a predominant component of the extracellular matrix and cellecollagen interactions are essential carcinogenesis. The present investigation explored the influence of estradiol on collagen solubility and metabolism in mammary tumors during tumor progression and regression. A single injection of 20 mg of 9,10-dimethyl- 1, 2-benzanthracene was given to rats at 7 weeks of age. With the appearance of the first palpable mammary tumor, the rats were treated with 0.5 mg estradiol or 50 mg tamoxifen daily for 30 days. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after 30 days of treatment. Estradiol appears to stimulate the synthesis of new collagens and thus contributes to the enlargement of the mammary tumors. This might have created a potential microenvironment by increasing the synthesis of suitable matrix that sustains the growth of the mammary tumors. In short, the present findings emphasize a definite mediatory role for collagen in estradiol promoted mammary tumor growth.

Published: 10 October 2005
Keywords: Estradiol; Mammary tumor; Collagen; Extracellular matrix

Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

Authors: Somshuvra Mukhopadhyaya, Mehul Shaha, Kirit Patela, Pravin B. Sehgala,b,*
a. Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
b. Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA

The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a ‘‘megalocytosis’’ phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the ‘‘Golgi blockade’’ hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and a-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1a and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis.

Published: 5 July 2005
Keywords: Pulmonary hypertension; Monocrotaline; Megalocytosis; Golgi blockade; Unfolded protein response (UPR); Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress)

Primary angiosarcoma of the breast associated Kasabach–Merritt syndrome during pregnancy

Authors: Maria Bernathovaa,, Werner Jaschkea, Christoph Pechlahnerb, Bettina Zelgerc, Gerd Bodnera
a. Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
b. Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
c. Department of Pathology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria

Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare aggressive tumour of unknown etiology. A frequent clinical presentation is a painful palpable smooth mass or diffuse enlargement of the breast without a palpable mass but with purple
discolouration of the overlying skin with apparent bruising. An uncommon clinical presentation of an angiosarcoma is spontaneous bleeding due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) by consumption coagulopathy, known as the Kasabach–Merritt syndrome. Imaging characteristics of a breast angiosarcoma are limited to a few radiological reports. We report a case of a young pregnant woman with a bleeding angiosarcoma of the breast and associated Kasabach–Merritt syndrome and describe the sonographic and MRI findings.

Published: 13 April 2005
Keywords : Angiosarcoma; Breast tumour; Kasabach–Merritt; syndrome; Sonography; MRI
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